2 edition of calculation of load and torque in hot flat rolling found in the catalog.
calculation of load and torque in hot flat rolling
Peter Mordaunt Cook
|Statement||P.M. Cook and A.W. McCrum.|
|Contributions||McCrum, A. W., British Iron and Steel Research Association.|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||109|
It is difficult to find the torque required because you need to know friction, which is difficult to estimate. A company I know who makes conveyors for large animal cages assumes a friction coefficient of , in other words if you hang the load off the side the conveyor and tilt the machine up, it would be strong enough to lift it :// Torque is best defined as the tendency of force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. You can calculate torque by using force and the moment arm (the perpendicular distance from an axis to the line of action of a force) or by using moment of inertia and angular :// Torsional strength is a load usually expressed in terms of torque, at which the fastener fails by being twisted off about its axis. Self-tapping screws and socket set screws require a torsional test to ensure that the screw head can withstand the required tightening :// - Bolted Joint Note: The chosen seating torque was 65% of the failure torque, based on testing. 1. Thread forming begins 2. Screw head in contact with plastic; clamp load generated 3. Strip-out torque level met or exceeded; boss damage occurs Penetration Depth Torque clamping load strip/failure torque thread forming torque 1. 2. 3. Torque () clamp /other/
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ADS Classic is now deprecated. It will be completely retired in October Please redirect your searches to the new ADS modern form or the classic info can be found on our G. Equations are derived for the normal roll pressure, specific roll load and torque in hot rolling mills, using the condition for plastic deformation in rolling derived by Orowan, together with von Kármán's equation of :// Rolling processes introduction: Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross section of a long workpiece by compressive forces applied through a set of rolls, as shown in figure ().
Fig. () Most rolling is carried out by hot working, called hot rolling, owing to the large amount of deformation ://. John G. Lenard, calculation of load and torque in hot flat rolling book Primer on Flat Rolling (Second Edition), The Lever Arm. In the empirical model of the flat rolling process (see Section ), the roll torque was calculated by assuming that the roll separating force acts halfway between the entry and the exit, making the ratio of the torque for both rolls and the roll separating force – the lever arm – equal to the Sims’ theory of hot rolling: roll pressure, no-slip angle, rolling load and torque, limitations of theory.
Mean strain rate in flat rolling with sticking friction. Lever arm ratio and its estimation from Sims’ theory, torque and mill power. Minimum thickness of rolled product. Factors controlling rolling :// λ = for hot rolling and for cold rolling. The torque is equal to the product of total rolling load and the effective moment arm.
Since there are two work rolls Torque Mt = 2P.a Consider two high roll mill as shown in the figure. For one revolution of the top roll the resultant rolling load P moves along the circumference of a circle Methodology for Calculation of Rolling Load and Forces Acting On Herringbone Gear Using Hot Rolling Theory Prof.
Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 26 Flat Rolling Analysis Results – without front and back tension p p µp µp σ σ x x + dσ x Stresses ~ramesh/courses/ME/ Torque (also called moment — mostly by engineers) is calculated by multiplying force and distance. The SI units of torque are newton-meters, or N*m (even though these units are the same as Joules, torque isn't work or energy, so should just be newton-meters).
In calculations, torque is represented by the Greek letter tau: :// Temperature loss during hot rolling by Seredynski () is: is the heat transfer coefficient of roll strip interface in, is the revolutions per minute. and are the strip and roll temperatures in Kelvin. and are of the roll.
Rise of roll’s surface temperature estimated by Roberts () is:~sstanic/teaching/Seminar// 5) Having decided the load torque, you can decide the required power at motor shaft, available motor size, gear ratio and so on. 6) I will suggest you to take the help of conveyor designers, who may be also available in your ://?How-to-Calculate-Load-Torque-amp.
Fundamental concept of metal rolling 1) The arc of contact between the rolls and the metal is a part of a circle.
2) The coefficient of friction, µµµµ, is constant in theory, but in reality µµµµvaries along the arc of contact. 3) The metal is considered to deform plastically during rolling. 4) The volume of metal is constant before mined and experimentally validated for the hot rolling of an aluminium alloy .
A 3D-thermo mechanical coupled FEM elasto-plastic model was applied for the prediction of stress, strain, temperature, rolling force and torque for the two-pass and four pass roll schedules in the continuous hot rolling of a large diameter mandrel bar . A large- Calculation of Rolling Speed of Bars and Sections 4.
Roll Pressure, Torque, Work, and Power in Rolling Roll Pressure and Load Measurements of Pressure Distribution along the Arc of Contact in Hot and Cold Rolling Determination of Roll Forces in Hot Rolling Calculation of Roll Force in Hot Rolling Secondary scale on hot strip and the impact on wear is another issue.
Stresses from Hertzian pressure in 4-high cold mill back up rolls were measured years ago, the results were never published, but of high interest - also, maybe later.
Schröder July K. Schröder: A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE MECHANICS OF ROLLING MILL RS Technologies, a Division of PCB Load & Torque, Inc. Indoplex Circle, Farmington Hills, MI USA Toll-Free in the USA Fax Email:[email protected] ISOCertified A2LA Accredited to ISO Engineering Fundamentals of Threaded Fastener Design and rolling load.
Rolling force in hot rolling: Material flow in hot rolling is less homogeneous. Strain rate also affects the flow stress of the material. Further, friction conditions are rather unpredictable. Friction coefficient in hot rolling may be high – ranges from to Strain rate in hot rolling can be found out from the Sims RB () The calculation of roll force and torque in hot rolling mills.
Proc Inst Mech Eng (1)– doi: /PIME_PROC____02 Article A coffin schedule is followed in hot strip rolling to arrange the width of the slabs to be rolled.
In this arrangement, slabs with lower width are placed at the beginning of the rolling and the width of slabs are gradually increased up to a maximum value and after that the width is reduced to close the starting values of slab ?script=sci_arttext&pid=S Bearing Load Calculation Mean load The load on bearings used in machines under normal circumstances will, in many cases, fluctuate according to a fixed time period or planned operation schedule.
The load on bearings operating under such conditions can be converted to a mean load (Fm), this is a load which gives Hot rolling is a metalworking process that occurs above the recrystallization temperature of the material.
After the grains deform during processing, they recrystallize, which maintains an equiaxed microstructure and prevents the metal from work hardening. The starting material is usually large pieces of metal, like semi-finished casting products, such as slabs, blooms, and ://(metalworking).
See Torque Force Design Equations webpage and torque chart page for recommended fastener torque and equation data. This fastener bolt torque calculator will Estimate the unknown torque, diameter, axial force applied and coefficient of turning friction for the given :// Torque is the action of a force producing or tending to produce rotation.
Torque = force x distance. #N#Input Horse Power, hp: Input Speed, N (RPM): Torque, T (lbs-ft): Known variables: Weight (lbs), Diameter (ft), Change in Speed (RPM), and Time to accelerate Total System (sec) In addition to the torque required to drive the load at a Equations are derived for the normal roll pressure, specific roll load and torque in hot rolling mills, using the condition for plastic deformation in rolling derived by Orowan, together with von and the cable can rapidly wear.
A pulle y reduces these effects with rolling con-tact between the cable and the machine, but it must be of sufficient size, typi-cally 20 times the cable diameter, to prevent fatiguing of the cable strands. In addition, a crown on a pulley can be used to keep a flat Book pdf/FUNdaMENTALs Topic Drive Wheel Motor Torque Calculations.
Step Four: Determine Total Tractive Effort. The Total Tractive Effort (TTE) is the sum of the forces calculated in steps 1, 2, and 3. (On higher speed vehicles friction in drive components may warrant the addition of 10%% to the total tractive effort to ensure acceptable vehicle performance.) Drive Wheel Motor Torque A bearing’s rolling internal mechanism greatly reduces the effort and energy it takes to slide or move an object over the surface.
This is why the invention of the bearing is so important. Support a load A shaft will try to push the bearing in the same direction in which the load moves. The load is dependent on both weight and direction. If TThheeoorryy ooff hhoott--rroolllliinngg In hot working processes, the flow stress for hot-rolling is a function of both temperature and strain rate (speed of rolls) Calculation of rolling load by Sims ' [ ()] 1 P =σ o b R h o − h f 2Q p Eq Where Qp is a complex function of the reduction in thickness and the ratio R/hf.
Values of Qp Torque is the turning moment of fastener or nut, which is expressed as the product exerted and the length of the lever arm. Due to the many variables associated with the torque, a safety factor is calculated in determining torque value which will produce a clamp load / The required bolt clamping force for a joint is lbs.
The torque required for a 3/4" dry steel bolt to achieve this tension can be calculated as. T dry = () ( lb) ( in) (1/12 ft/in) = (lb f ft) Example - Required torque for tightening a Metric bolt to proof load.
The proof load for a M30 metric bolt grad is N This volume compiles information from physics, metallurgy, and mechanical and electrical engineering to epitomize the fundamental characteristics of flat rolling steel. Flat Rolling Fundamentals is drawn from in-depth analyses of metal properties and behaviors to technologies in application.
The book provides a full characterization of steel, including structure, chemical composition The calculation of load and torque in hot flat rolling. Park Lane, London: The British Iron and Steel Research Association, Power Estimation in Shape Rolling (master thesis) Using a modified Eulerian numerical method, Eqs., can be solved for both the low and high carbon steel wires of mm diameter at different reductions in height, to evaluate the rolli From these figures, it is seen that there exists a maximum pressure at the neutral angle.
On the other hand the pressure distribution in the flat rolling of wire presents a ‘friction hill’, which is in the Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque Every time we push a door open or tighten a bolt using a wrench, we apply a force that results If the moment of inertia of an object about an axis of rotation that passes through its center of mass (COM) is known, then the torque is the only value usable for deciding the quality of screw joints.
Screws are usually rated for a specific tightening torque with regard to size and tensile strength (bolt grade).
This torque has generally been calculated to give a tension in the screw of Orowan E The calculation of roll pressure in hot and cold flat rolling Proc. Inst.
Mech. Eng. – Crossref. Sims R B The calculation of roll force and torque in hot rolling mills Proc. Inst Precz W, Henningsen P, Arentoft M and Jonsson N G A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in Understanding Journal Bearings Malcolm E.
Leader, P.E. Applied Machinery Dynamics Co. Durango, Colorado anti-friction or rolling element bearings and hydrodynamic journal bearings. The primary function of a bearing is to carry load between a rotor and the case with as little wear as possible.
This bearing function exists in The industry-leading MTS Tire Rolling Resistance Measurement System provides the testing accuracy and repeatability you need to effectively assess tire rolling resistance for passenger car, light truck and commercial truck tires. In addition, an experienced global service network is dedicated to keep your system in top running :// In hot rolling, the quantities rolling load, torque, and power consumption are important measurable process parameters.
For the determination of rolling loads in hot flat rolling processes, like heavy plate rolling, Sims's model 1 is a well‐known approach represented by an analytical formula. The solution of Sims's equation leads to the multiplier Q, which is a function of the roll gap :// Distributed Load Calulations: 7.
Solar panel area (length x width) 8. Total array area x = 1. Distributed Load / = (Max. allowable distributed load si 5/lbs.
per sq. ft.) 5. Solar Array Weight and Loading Calculation Worksheet.“Computations of Rolling Load, Torque and Roll Face Pressure in Metal Strip Rolling”. Google Scholar Ekelund, S. Steel, vol.
93, 21st August and following numbers (translated), “Analysis of Factors Influencing Rolling Pressure and Power Consumption in the Hot Rolling of Steel”. Tightening the nut or bolt creates a tensile load in the bolt and an equal clamp load between fittings. It’s the clamp load that’s important.
Two design challenges: 1. Establishing the right preload at assembly 2. Maintaining preload during service addressed in Sec.
7 But too high of a preload Fundamentals of rolling, Part 1 cross-section curve decrease determined diagram dimensions draught coefficient elongation coefficient equal finishing flange flat flywheel formula forward slip friction torque height hence horizontal hot rolling increase initial length load m/sec maximum mean resistance measured metal flow method neutral axis ?id=f3rvAAAAIAAJ.